On November 21 in History

November 21, 2005

* 235 – Anterus is elected Pope.
* 1272 – Following Henry III of England’s death on November 16, his son Prince Edward becomes King of England.
* 1783 – In Paris, Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier and François Laurent, Marquis d’Arlandes, make the first untethered hot air balloon flight.
* 1789 – North Carolina ratifies the United States Constitution and is admitted as the 12th U.S. state.
* 1791 – Colonel Napoléon Bonaparte is promoted to full general and appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Armies of the French Republic.
* 1861 – American Civil War: Confederate President Jefferson Davis appoints Judah Benjamin secretary of war.
* 1877 – Thomas Edison announces his invention of the phonograph, a machine that can record sound.
* 1920 – Bloody Sunday during the Anglo-Irish War
* 1922 – Rebecca Latimer Felton of Georgia takes the oath of office, becoming the first woman United States Senator.
* 1927 – Columbine Mine Massacre: Striking coal miners were allegedly attacked with machine guns by a detachment of state police dressed in civilian clothes.
* 1934 – Cricket: The MCC alters the lbw rule so a batsman can be lbw to a ball pitching outside off stump. The change is later blamed for many problems developing during the 1950s – primarily negative bowling outside leg stump to a field of short-leg fieldsmen.
* 1941 – The radio program King Biscuit Time is broadcast for the first time (it would later become the longest running daily radio broadcast in history and the most famous live blues radio program).
* 1942 – The completion of the Alaska Highway (also known as the Alcan Highway) is celebrated (the highway was not usable by general vehicles until 1943, however).
* 1953 – Authorities at the British Natural History Museum announce that the “Piltdown Man” skull, held to be one of the most famous fossil skulls in the world, was a hoax.
* 1962 – The Chinese People’s Liberation Army declared a unilateral cease-fire in the Sino-Indian War.
* 1964 – The Verrazano Narrows Bridge opens to traffic (at the time it was the world’s longest suspension bridge).
* 1964 – Second Vatican Council: The third period of the Roman Catholic Church’s ecumenical council closes.
* 1967 – Vietnam War: American General William Westmoreland tells news reporters: “I am absolutely certain that whereas in 1965 the enemy was winning, today he is certainly losing.”
* 1969 – The first ARPANET link is established.
* 1969 – US President Richard Nixon and Japanese Premier Eisaku Sato agree in Washington, DC on the return of Okinawa to Japanese control in 1972. Under terms of the agreement, the US is to retain its rights to bases on the island, but these are to be nuclear-free.
* 1970 – Vietnam War: Operation Ivory Coast – A joint Air Force and Army team raids the Son Tay prison camp in an attempt to free American POWs thought to be held there (there were zero Americans killed, but the prisoners had already moved to another camp; All US POWs were moved to a handful of central prison complexes as a result of this raid).
* 1974 – The Birmingham Pub Bombings by the IRA killed 21 people. The Birmingham Six were sentenced to life in prison for this and subsequently acquitted.
* 1974 – George W. Bush is discharged from the US Air Force Reserve.
* 1977 – Minister of Internal Affairs Hon D A Highet announced that ‘the national anthems of New Zealand shall be the traditional anthem ‘God Save The Queen’ and the poem ‘God Defend New Zealand’, written by Thomas Bracken, as set to music by John Joseph Woods, both being of equal status as national anthems appropriate to the occasion’.
* 1979 – The United States Embassy in Islamabad, Pakistan is attacked by a mob and set alight, killing four. (see: Foreign relations of Pakistan)
* 1980 – A deadly fire breaks out at the MGM Grand Hotel in Las Vegas, Nevada (now Bally’s Las Vegas). 87 people are killed and more than 650 are injured in the worst disaster in Nevada history.
* 1980 – Lake Peigneur drained into an underlying salt deposit. A misplaced Texaco oil probe drilled into the Diamond crystal salt mine; water flowing down into the mine eroded the edges of the hole. The whirlpool created sucked the drilling platform, several barges, houses and trees thousands of feet, to the bottom of the dissolving salt deposit.
* 1985 – United States Navy intelligence analyst Jonathan Jay Pollard is arrested for spying (he was caught giving Israel classified information on Arab nations and was eventually sentenced to life in prison).
* 1986 – Iran-Contra Affair: National Security Council member Oliver North and his secretary start to shred documents implicating them in the sale of weapons to Iran and channeling the proceeds to help fund the Contras rebels in Nicaragua.
* 1990 – Charter of Paris for a New Europe refocusses the efforts of the Conference for Security and Co-operation in Europeon post-Cold War issues.
* 1995 – The Dayton Peace Agreement was initialled in the Wright Patterson Air Force Base, near Dayton, Ohio, ending three and a half years of civil war in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The agreement was formally ratified in Paris, on December 14 that same year.
* 1995 – Toy Story is released as the first feature-length film created completely using computer-generated imagery.
* 1995 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average closes above 5,000 (5,023.55) for the first time.
* 2002 – NATO invites Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia to become members.
* 2004 – The Nintendo DS is released in North America.
* 2004 – The second round of the Ukrainian presidential election is held, unleashing massive protests and controversy with regards to the election’s integrity.
* 2005 – The Georgia Aquarium, the largest in the world, opens to season ticketholders in Atlanta.


One Response to “On November 21 in History”

  1. Ted Says:

    The 19th century lasted from 1801 through 1900 in the Gregorian calendar. Historians sometimes define a Nineteenth Century historical era stretching from 1815 (The Congress of Vienna) to 1914

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